Chemical nomenclature can be frustrating to learn. It’s a series of conventions which have been patched together over a long period of time, some of which date back to the 19th century. The language contains archaic terms that are past their useful prime, but are lodged deeply in the language of chemistry and almost impossible to excise at this point. The point of this article is to go beyond the common terms cis , trans , (E,Z), (S,R) – which are an absolute must to know – to point out some of the less frequently encountered aspects of nomenclature which might make you furrow your brow and say – “what does that mean?”
Benzoic acid occurs naturally as do its esters in many plant and animal species. Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around %). Ripe fruits of several Vaccinium species (., cranberry , V. vitis macrocarpon ; bilberry , V. myrtillus ) contain as much as –% free benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is also formed in apples after infection with the fungus Nectria galligena . Among animals, benzoic acid has been identified primarily in omnivorous or phytophageous species, ., in viscera and muscles of the rock ptarmigan ( Lagopus muta ) as well as in gland secretions of male muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus ) or Asian bull elephants ( Elephas maximus ). 
DIBAL is useful in organic synthesis for a variety of reductions, including converting carboxylic acids , their derivatives, and nitriles to aldehydes . DIBAL efficiently reduces α-β unsaturated esters to the corresponding allylic alcohol.  By contrast, LiAlH 4 reduces esters and acyl chlorides to primary alcohols , and nitriles to primary amines [use Feiser work-up procedure]. DIBAL reacts slowly with electron-poor compounds, and more quickly with electron-rich compounds. Thus, it is an electrophilic reducing agent whereas LiAlH 4 can be thought of as a nucleophilic reducing agent.